Today In History

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  Month
 
Day
 
Year
 
Births   Deaths   Events
               
 
YEAR EVENTS
235   St Anterus begins his reign as Catholic Pope
496   St Gelasius I ends his reign as Catholic Pope
695   Pope Sergius names Willibrord as archbishop Clemens of Friezen
1317   Frederik of Sierck/Zyrick becomes bishop of Utrecht
1492   Pinta under Mart¡n A Pinz¢n separates from Columbus' fleet
1620   Mayflower Compact signed by Pilgrims in Cape Cod
1620   Pilgrim Fathers reach America: Provincetown Harbor, Mass
1654   Richard Johnson, a free black, granted 550 acres in Virginia
1696   J Vanbrughes "Relapse or Virtue in Danger," premieres in London
1729   Netherlands signs Treaty of Seville
1759   Battle at Maxen: Prussian army surrenders to Austrians
1783   Pilƒtre de Rozier & Marquis d'Arlandes make 1st free balloon flight
1787   Andrew Jackson admitted to bar
1789   North Carolina ratifies constitution, becomes 12th US state
1794   Honolulu Harbor discovered
1806   Decree of Berlin: Emperor Napoleon I bans all trade with England
1813   Stettin surrenders to allied armies
1818   Russia's Czar Alexander I petitions for a Jewish state in Palestine
1824   1st Jewish Reform congregation forms, Charleston, SC
1834   HMS Beagle anchors at Bay of San Carlos, Chile
1837   Thomas Morris of Australia skips rope 22,806 times
1847   Steamer "Phoenix" is lost on Lake Michigan, kills 200
1848   Alfred de Musset's "Andr‚ del Sarto," premieres in Paris
1848   Cincinnati Turngemeinde founded
1849   Friedrich Hebbel's "Der Rubin," premieres in Vienna
1852   Duke U, founded in 1838 as Union Institute chartered as Normal College
1864   -22] Battle at Griswoldville, Georgia
1865   Shaw University forms in Raleigh NC
1871   Moses F Gale patents a cigar lighter (NYC)
1871   The 1st human cannonball, Emilio Onra, is shot
1876   Skirmish between HM Stanley's expedition & natives
1877   Tom Edison announces his "talking machine" invention (phonograph)
1880   Henry Stanley & Pierre de Brazza quarrel about possession of Congo
1895   Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of Bruce Partington Plans" (BG)
1901   Richard Strauss' opera "Feuersnot," premieres in Dresden
1902   1st night football game, Phila Athletics beats Kanaweola AC, 39-0
1902   Baseball's Phila Athletics & Phillies form pro football teams, joining Pitts Stars in 1st attempt at a National Football League
1905   1st game ever played in the Australian Tennis Open
1906   China prohibits opium trade
1914   Billy Mallett of Hamilton Tigers kicks 9 singles in a game
1914   British army conquerors Bazra
1917   M Gorki calls Lenin a blind fanatic/unthinking adventurer
1918   2 German ammunition trains explode in Hamont Belgium, 1,750 die
1918   Polish soldiers organize a pogrom against Jews of Galicia Poland
1920   Karel Cap‚k's "Vec Makropulos," premieres in Prague
1920   Mussolini's squad begins terror, 11 die in Bologna Italy
1922   Rebecca L Felton (Ga) sworn in as 1st female US Senator
1924   British premier Baldwin cancels Labor contract with USSR
1925   Red Grange plays final Univ of Illinois game, signs with Chicago Bears
1933   1st US ambassador to USSR, W.C. Bullitt, begins service
1934   "Uiver" returns from Schiphol in London-Melbourne air race
1934   NY Yankees buy Joe DiMaggio from SF Seals (Pacific Coast League)
1935   1st commercial crossing of Pacific by plane (China Clipper)
1935   Jean Giraudoux' "La Guerre de Troie n'Aura," premieres in Paris
1937   Dmitri Shostakovitch's 5th Symphony premieres in Lenningrad
1938   -24] Belgian king Leopold III visits Netherlands
1938   Nazi forces occupy western Czech & declared them German citizens
1940   Nazi occupiers forbid building schools in Netherlands
1942   Tweety Bird, aka Tweety Pie, debuts in "Tale of Two Kitties"
1943   7 Belgian ministers in London sentence King Leopold III
1944   Personnel & executive staff of Philips demonstrate for more food
1945   Benjamin Britten's 2nd String quartet in C, premieres
1945   General Motors workers go on strike
1946   Georgi Dimitrov elected premier of Bulgaria
1946   Harry Truman becomes 1st US president to travel in a submerged sub
1947   Bill Longson beats Lou Thesz in St Louis, to become wrestling champ
1949   Bill Veeck sells Indians for $22 million
1952   1st US postage stamp in 2 colors (rotary process) introduced
1952   Dodgers pitcher Joe Black wins NL Rookie of Year
1953   "Pitdown Man," discovered in 1912 proved to be a hoax
1953   WKJG TV channel 33 in Ft Wayne, IN (NBC) begins broadcasting
1955   Argentina asks Panama for return of ex-president Per¢n
1955   KTVO TV channel 3 in Ottumwa-Kirksville, IA (ABC) begins broadcasting
1956   Don Newcombe, wins NL MVP & 1st-ever Cy Young Award
1959   Jack Benny (violin) & Richard Nixon (piano) play their famed duet
1960   Bob Scheffing signs to manage Tigers after Casey Stengel turns it down
1963   JFK flies to Texas
1964   "Something More!" closes at Eugene O'Neill Theater NYC after 15 perfs
1964   "Zizi" opens at Broadway Theater NYC for 49 performances
1964   Pope Paul VI signs 3rd sitting of 2nd Vatican council
1964   World's longest suspension bridge "Verrazano Narrows" opens (NYC)
1965   1st freighter arrives in Ashdod Port Israel
1965   USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
1966   Dutch govt of Zijlstra forms
1967   Phillip & Jay Kunz fly a kite a record 28,000 feet
1968   Cin trades shortstop Leo Cardenas to Twins for pitcher Jim Merritt
1968   Supremes & Temptations release "I'm Gonna Make You Love Me"
1968   Yoko Ono suffers a miscarriage
1969   KXIX (now KVCT) TV channel 19 in Victoria, TX (ABC) 1st broadcast
1969   US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1970   NY Knicks 1st game against Cleve Cavalier, Knicks win 102-94 at MSG
1971   NY Rangers scores a NHL record 8 goals in 1 period
1971   Richard Baker becomes teacher of SF Zen Center
1972   Red Sox Carlton Fisk wins AL Rookie of Year, Mets Jon Matlack wins NL
1973   Pete Rose wins NL MVP
1973   Pres Nixon's attorney, J Fred Buzhardt, reveals presence of 18« minute gap in a White House tape recording related to Watergate
1974   Freedom of Information Act passed by Congress over Pres Ford's veto
1975   Linda McCartney drug charges in US are dropped
1977   1st flight of Concorde (London to New York)
1977   Orioles 1st baseman Eddie Murray wins AL Rookie of Year
1978   Bob Horner of Braves wins NL Rookie of Year Award
1979   Crowd at Islamabad, Pakistan attack US embassy, 1 dies
1980   Dallas' "Who Shot JR?" episode (Kristen) gets a 53.3 rating (83 mill)
1980   Fire at MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas kills 84
1980   Gene Michael named 25th Yank mgr, replacing Dick Howser, who resigns
1980   It is revealed Kristen shot J.R. Ewing on "Dallas"
1980   John & Yoko pose nude for photographer Allan Tannenbaum
1980   MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas in fire; 84 die
1981   400,000 demonstrate in Amsterdam against cruise missiles
1981   Olivia Newton-John's "Physical," single goes #1 & stays for 10 weeks
1983   "Doonesbury" opens at Biltmore Theater NYC for 104 performances
1983   NY Ranger Ron Greschner marries model Carol Alt
1986   Central African Republic adopts constitution
1986   Suriname army leader Desi Bouterse massacres Moiwana village
1987   Actress Demi Moore marries actor Bruce Willis
1987   Horse Racing Breeders' Cup Champs: Epitome, Ferdinand, Miesque, Sacahuista, Success Express, Theatrica, Very Subtle at Hollywo
1989   Law banning smoking on most domestic flights signed by Pres Bush
1989   TV cameras permitted in British House of Commons
1990   Michael Milken is sentenced to 10 years for security law violations
1991   Poetess Maria Elene Cruz Varela arrested in Cuba
1992   Jan Karlsson swims world record 50m butterfly (23.80 sec)
1992   Jani Sievinen swims world record 100m medley (53.78 sec)
1992   Louise Karlsson swims world record 50m freestyle (31.19 sec)
1992   Oregon Sen Bob Packwood issues apology for unwelcome sexual advances
1992   Sam's Town Bowling Invitational won by Tish Johnson
1993   "Cinderella" closes at New York State Theater NYC after 14 perfs
1993   "Cyrano - The Musical" opens at Neil Simon Theater NYC for 137 perfs
1993   Neo-fascists MSI win 36% of municipal elections in Rome
1994   1st-class cricket debut of Andrew Symonds (Queensland v NSW, SCG)
1995   Dow Jones closes above 5,000 for 1st time
1995   Israel grants jailed US spy Jason Pollard, citizenship
1995   New double Beatle CD released with new song "Free as a Bird"
1996   "Rehearsal" opens at Criterion Theater NYC

BIRTHS
1495   John Bale, England, bishop/anti-catholic playwright (Kynge Johan)
1561   Carolus Scribani, Italian/Flemish jesuit/author
1637   Catharina Questiers, Dutch poetess (Friend of Abandoned Child)
1645   Johann Lohner, composer
1683   Johann Michael Muller, composer
1692   Carlo Fragoni, Italy, poet
1694   Voltaire, [Fran‡ois-Marie Arouet], France, thinker (Candide)
1724   John Ekels, the Old, Amsterdam painter/cartoonist
1729   Josiah Bartlett, US physician/judge/signer (Decl of Independence)
1742   Alessandro Felici, composer
1768   Friedrich Schleiermacher, German theologist/philosopher
1785   William Beaumont, surgeon (studied digestion)
1787   Barry Cornwall, [Bryan Waller Procter], British? poet
1787   Samuel Cunard, founder (1st regular Atlantic steamship line)
1817   Richard Brooke Garnett, Brig General (Confederate Army), died in 1863
1828   William McComb, Brig General (Confederate Army), died in 1918
1829   Peter A de Genestet, Dutch vicar/poet
1831   John Franklin Miller, Bvt Mjr Gen (Union volunteers), died in 1886
1834   Henrietta (Hetty) Green, financier (Witch of Wall Street)
1834   Joseph Jackson Bartlett, Bvt Mjr Gen (Union volunteers), died in 1893
1840   Victoria, Empress of Germany/Queen of Prussia
1851   D‚sir‚ J Mercier, Belgian philosopher/cardinal
1852   Francisco Tarrega y Eixea, composer
1853   Hussain Kamil, sultan of Egypt (1914-17)
1854   Benedict XV, [Giacomo PGB marques della Chiessa], 258th Pope (1914-22)
1861   Joao da Cruz, Brazilian poet
1863   Arthur Quiller-Couch, [Q], editor (Oxford Book of English Verse)
1863   Mina Dilis-Beersmans, Flemish actress/wife of John Dilis (Poppenhuis)
1867   Vladimir N Ipatiev, Russian chemist
1870   Joe Darling, cricketer (Australian lefty batsman at turn of century)
1870   Stanley Jackson, cricketer (captain of England, governor of Bengal)
1871   Panayot Pipkov, composer
1877   Louis Campbell-Tipton, composer
1877   Sigfrid Karg-Elert, composer
1878   Gustav Radbruch, German lawyer/minister of Justice
1880   Franz Hessel, writer
1886   Harold G Nicolson, English diplomat/author (Good Behaviour)
1894   Corinne Griffith, Texarkana TX, actress (3 Hours, Lilies of Field)
1898   Ren‚ Magritte, Belgian surrealistic painter (This is Not a Pipe)
1900   Alice Calhoun, Cleveland OH, Silent film actress (Flowing Gold)
1900   Jobyna Ralston, South Pittsburgh TN, actress (For Heaven's Sake)
1902   Michail A Suslov, Russian party ideologist [OS=Nov 8]
1904   Coleman Hawkins, virtually created tenor saxophone for jazz
1905   David Moule-Evans, composer
1907   Charles Korvin, Czechoslovakia, actor (Berlin Express, Ship of Fools)
1907   Jim Bishop, author (The Day Lincoln was Shot)
1907   M Eleonore Lippits, 1st Dutch female missionary doctor
1908   Franz Pfnr, Germany, slalom (Olympic-gold-1936)
1912   Anne Bolt, photo-journalist/trade unionist
1912   Eleanor Powell, Springfield Mass, actress/tap dancer (Bdwy Melody)
1916   Cecilia P J "Cilly" Bach, Dutch/US/Spanish actress (In Pyama)
1916   Esmond Kentish, cricketer (WI fast bowler in 2 Tests 1948 & 1954)
1916   Sid Luckman, NFL QB (Chicago Bears)
1917   Sem Presser, Dutch press photographer
1920   Ralph Meeker, Minneapolis MN, actor (Anderson Tapes, Night Stalker)
1920   Stan Musial, outfielder (St Louis Cardinal, 7 times NL bat champ)
1921   Geza Anda, Hungarian/Swiss pianist (Mozart/Bart¢k)
1921   Vivian Blaine, Newark NJ, actress (Guys & Dolls, Skirts Ahoy)
1922   Maria Casares, La Coruna Spain, French actress (Orpheus, Lectrice)
1925   Johan "Poncke" Princen, KNIL-defector/civil rights in Djakarta
1927   Joseph Campanella, NYC, actor (Dr Steffen-The Nurses, Lou-Mannix)
1929   Marilyn French, US author (The Women's Room)
1931   Malcolm Williamson, composer
1932   Jim Ringo, NFL center (Green Bay, Philadelphia)
1932   Pelle Gudmundsen-Holmgreen, composer
1933   Frank Brake, English multi-millionaire
1933   Henry Hartsfield Jr, Birmingham Ala, astro (STS-4, STS 41-D, STS 61A)
1933   Jean Shepard, Pauls Valley Okla, country singer (Ozark Jubilee)
1934   Laurence Luckinbill, Ft Smith Ark, actor (Delphi Bureau, Ike)
1934   Peter Philpott, cricketer (NSW & Australian leg spinner 1965-66)
1936   James De Preist, Philadelphia Penn, conductor (Mitropolos 1964)
1937   Marlo Thomas, [Mrs Phil Donahue], Detroit Mich (That Girl!, Jenny)
1938   Robert Drivas, [Choromokos], Chicago, actor (Our Private World)
1939   Rick Lenz, Springfield Ill, actor (Hec Ramsey, Scandalous John)
1940   Dr John, [Rebennack], New Orleans La, vocalist (I Was in Right Place)
1940   Javed Akhtar, cricketer (Pakistani off-spinner took 0-52 in 1962 Test)
1940   Natalia Makarova, Leningrad, ballerina (Kirov)/defected 1970
1941   David Porter, US songwriter (Soul Man)
1941   George Morren, Flemish painter/sculptor
1941   Juliet Mills, London England, actress (Nanny & the Professor, QB VII)
1942   Tweety Bird, cartoon character
1943   Larry Mahan, Oregon, rodeo champ (1967-70)
1944   Earl "the Pearl" Monroe, Phila Pa, NBA Guard (NY Knicks, Balt Bullets)
1944   Harold Ramis, Chicago IL, actor/director (SCTV, Stripes)
1944   Marcia "Marcy" Carsey, TV executive/producer
1944   Richard J Durbin, (Rep-D-IL, 1983- )
1945   Goldie Hawn, Takoma Park Md, actress (Laugh-in, Private Benjamin)
1946   Jonas Tomasson, composer
1947   Dick W de Cloe, Dutch MP (PvdA)
1948   Alphonse Mouson, rocker
1948   Lonnie Jordan, San Diego Ca, rock keyboardist/vocalist (War)
1949   Basil Williams, cricketer (century on debut for West Indies 1978)
1949   Nickolas Grace, Cheshire England, actor (Diamond's Edge)
1950   Alberto Juantorena, Cuba, 400m dash (Olympic-gold-1976)
1950   Bruce Laird, cricketer (tough Australian opener 1979-82)
1950   Livingston Taylor, Boston, rocker (I Will be in Love With You)
1952   Deborah Shelton, Wash DC, actress (Dallas, Ocean Kill, Body Double)
1952   Eamonn Coghlan, Ireland, 1500m runner (Oly-4th-76)
1952   Lorna Luft, Scarsdale NY, singer/actress (Where the Boys Are-1980)
1953   Tina Brown, journalist publisher (New Yorker, Tattler)
1956   Mariana Simionescu, Tirgu Neamt Romania, 1st wife of Bjorn Borg
1956   Terri Welles, [Knepper], Calif, playmate of the year (Dec, 1980)
1957   Jim Brown, rocker (UB40-Red Red Wine)
1958   Evert van Benthem, Dutch skater (11 Cities Skating Race, 1985, 86)
1958   Frank Edmonds, Thunder Bay Ont, Canadian Tour golfer (1989 Alberta)
1958   Tim Robinson, cricketer (solid England opener in 29 Tests 1984-89)
1959   Colin Beashel, Australian star yachter (Olympics-96)
1959   Tim Wilkison, Shelby NC, tennis player (WCT Atlanta finals-1986)
1963   Nicollette Sheridan, Worthing England, actress (Paige-Knots Landing)
1963   Peter Bosz, Dutch soccer star (Toulon/Feyenoord)
1964   Marjorie Judith Vincent, Oak Park Ill, Miss America (1991)
1964   Olden Polynice, NBA forward/center (Sacramento Kings)
1964   Thomas Everett, NFL safety (Tampa Bay Bucs)
1965   Bjork, Iceland, singer (Like Someone in Love)
1966   Jerry Fontenot, NFL center/guard (Chic Bears, New Orleans Saints)
1966   Troy Aikman, NFL quarterback (Dallas Cowboys - Superbowl 1992)
1967   Dominic Lavoie, hockey defenseman (Team Austria 1998)
1967   Kelly Gallagher, Myrtle Beach SC, playmate (Sep, 1994)
1968   Andy Caddick, English cricket pace bowler (NZ 1993)
1968   Antonio Tarver, Orlando Fla, light heavyweight boxer (Olympics-br-96)
1969   Dahlia Salem, Boston Mass, actress (Sofia Carlino-Another World)
1969   Ken Griffy Jr, centerfielder (Seattle Mariners, MVP 1997)
1970   Dahlia Salem, actress (Sofia Carlino-Another World) [approx 1970]
1970   Jorgen Gustafsson, WLAF guard (Amsterdam Admirals)
1970   Justin Langer, cricketer (gutsy Australian lefty bat 1993- )
1970   Keith Crawford, wide receiver (St Louis Rams)
1971   Michael Strahan, NFL defensive end (NY Giants)
1971   Ramondo Stallings, NFL defensive end (Cin Bengals)
1971   Robert Flickinger, WLAF defensive end (Scottish Claymores)
1973   Brent Smith, tackle (Miami Dolphins)
1973   Danny Kanell, quarterback (NY Giants)
1974   Casey Patton, London Ontario, boxer (Olympics-96)
1974   Tremain Mack, strong safety (Cincinnati Bengals)
1975   Chad Levitt, running back (Oakland Raiders)
1975   Cherie Johnson, Pitts Pa, actress (Cherie-Punky Brewster)
1976   Saleem Elahi, cricketer (bro of Manzoor Pak, Test opener v Aust 1995)
1980   Danielle Hartsell, Ann Arbor Mich, pairs skater (& Steve Hartsell)

DEATHS
1481   Ikkyu Sojun, Zen head of Daitokuji temple, dies in Kyoto, Japan at 87
1555   Georg Agricola, [Bauer], German mineralogist (zinc), dies at 61
1580   Willem Van Hoorn, baron of Heze, governor of Brussels, executed
1610   Benedict van Canfield, [William Fish], English missionary, dies
1624   Jakob B”hme, German philosophical mystic, dies (birth date unknown)
1695   Henry Purcell, English composer (Indian Queen), dies at 36
1710   Barnardo Pasquini, composer, dies at 72
1728   Fjodor M graaf Apraksin, Russian gen-admiral, dies at about 57
1811   Heinrich W von Kleist, German playwright, dies at 34
1813   William Russell, composer, dies at 36
1817   Richard B Garnett, killed during Pickett's Charge, Brig Gen
1830   K roly Kisfaludy, Hungarian literary (Ir‚ne, Moh cs), dies at 44
1863   Joseph Mayseder, composer, dies at 74
1870   Karel J Erben, Czech poet (Ruiker), dies at 69
1875   Friedrich A Lange, philosopher/socialist (Neo-Kantianism), dies at 67
1882   Sergei G Netsjajev, Russian nihilist, dies at 35
1899   Garret Augustus Hobart, 24th VP, dies
1900   J J Ferris, cricketer (48 wickets for Aust in 8 Tests in 1880's), dies
1907   Gaetano Braga, composer, dies at 78
1907   Harry Boyle, round-arm cricket bowler (12 of Aust's early Tests), dies
1916   Franz Jozef I, King of Austria/Hungary, dies
1920   Caryl Florio, composer, dies at 77
1920   William James Robjohn, composer, dies at 77
1928   Hermann Sudermann, German author (Frau Sorge), dies
1932   Vito Pardo, Italian sculptor (Columbus monument Argentina), dies
1938   Leopold Godowsky, pianist/composer, dies at 68
1940   Geoffrey Legge, cricketer (WWII 196 Eng v NZ Auckland 1930), dies
1941   Juanita Spellini, first women executed in Calif
1942   James Barry M Hertzog, South African premier (1914-39), dies at 76
1945   Robert Benchley, US humorist (My 10 years in a quandary), dies at 56
1948   Bokke RS Pollema journalist/author (Lock of hair & l˜en), dies at 65
1952   Henri‰tte Roland Holst-de Schalk, marxist author, dies at 82
1952   William Green, union chairman (AFL 1924-52), dies at 79
1954   Karol Rathaus, composer, dies at 59
1954   Prof Werner Elert, German Lutheran theologist, dies at 69
1958   Mel Ott, NY Giant baseball star (1926-1947), dies at 49
1959   Max Baer, US, heavyweight boxing champ (1934), dies at 49
1963   Luis Cernuda, Spanish poet (Perfil del Aire), dies at 61
1963   Pierre Blanchar, actor (Man From Nowhere), dies at 71
1963   Robert Stroud, "bird man of Alcatraz", dies
1967   Florence Reed, actress (Black Panther Club), dies after illness at 84
1972   Karel H ba, Czech violinist/composer, dies at 74
1974   Frank Martin, Swiss composer (In Terra Fax), dies at 84
1975   G Gunnarsson, writer, dies at 86
1976   Niles Welch, actor (Cornered), dies at 88
1980   Jim Parks Sr, Kent cricket all-rounder (only Test for England), dies
1981   Harry Von Zell, TV announcer (Burns & Allen), dies at 75
1982   Lee Patrick, actress (Henrietta-Topper, Maltese Falcon), dies at 75
1985   Ramnath Kenny, cricketer (5 Tests for India 1958-60), dies
1986   Jerry Colonna, actor (Jerry Colonna Show), dies at 82
1987   James E Folsom, (Alabama-Gov, 1947-51, 1955-59), dies at 79
1991   Daniel Mann, US director (Rose tattoo), dies of heart failure at 79
1991   David "Sonny" Werblin, AFL owner (NY Jets), dies at 81
1991   Prior Jones, West Indian cricket pace bowler (9 Tests 1948-52), dies
1991   Sonny Werblin, NY sports impresario, dies at 81
1992   Kaysone Phomvihane, PM of Laos (1975-91), dies
1992   Severino Gazzelloni, Italian flautist, dies
1993   Bill Bixby, actor (My Favorite Martian), dies of prostate cancer at 59
1993   Christopher Frank, director/actor (Annee Des Meduses), dies at 50
1993   Emile Ardolino, director (Sister Act), dies of AIDS at 50
1993   Jim McLaughlin, Buffalo radio newsman (WKBW), dies at 59
1994   Manfred Longer, Austrian/Dutch gay disco owner, dies at 42
1995   Dorothy Jeakins, costume designer, dies at 81
1995   George Ivan Smith, diplomat, dies at 80
1995   Peter Grant, rock band manager, dies at 60
1995   Smilin' Jim Eames, singer/songwriter, dies at 71
1996   Bernard William George Rose, organist, dies at 80
1996   Edward George Edwards, chenist, dies at 82
1996   Virginia Downing, actress (Gig, Butterfield 8), dies at 92
1997   Ismail Fahmi, external minister of Egypt in (1973-77), dies

   
 
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